I hl»
edition puhlOltetJ IMWI

by A.OYLYS , Kmiiim, I llhiuiili

Copyright O
Basil SlmixMiilk

First
published 1994

Revised
edition published 1994

The right
of Basil D. Shabetnik to be iilciillfied **u **(hi **author **of this
work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright **|)#«lgni **and
Patents Act 1988. This work is intellectual property of **Dr. lull **D.
Shabetnik. 125493, Moscow, Konakowskiy, 4 - 64

All
rights reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

This book
is an introduction to a ‘new’ theory of matter and space. The author presents a
‘fundamental unity of nature’ and a ‘real’ Law of Gravity Practical
applications prove this physical model and show a way forward from the deadlock
of human civilisation.

Ýòà êíèãà çíàêîìèò ñ íîâûì ïðåäñòàâëåíèåì ìàòåðèè, â òîì ÷èñëå è ïðîñòðàíñòâà. Â íåé ðàññìîòðåíî ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîå åäèíñòâî ïðèðîäû è îòðàæåíî óñòàíîâëåíèå äåéñòûèòåëüíîãî çàêîíà òÿãîòåíèÿ. Â êíèãå ïðåäñòàâëåíû äîñòèãíóòûå ðåçóëüòàòû, êîòîðûå îáîñíîâûâàþò íîâóþ íàóêó î ïðèðîäå è îïðåäåëÿþò âûõîä èç òóïèêîâîãî ðàçâèòèÿ Çåìíîé öèâèëèçàöèè.

**CONTENTS - ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ**

Preface of the
scientific editor............................................... 4

Preface to the
first publication of
Fractal Physics............. 8

**FRACTAL PHYSICS**

Introduction to a
new physical model................................ 11

1. Subatomic particles
and the photon.

Their fractal
structure......................................................... 12

2. The structure of
space..................................................... 15

3. Fundamental unity of
nature............................................. 19

4. The basic aspects
and results of
Fractal physics... 28

Ïðåäèñëîâèå íàó÷íîãî
ðåäàêòîðà........................................ 37

Ïðåäèñëîâèå íàó÷íîãî ðåäàêòîðà

ê ïåðâîìó èçäàíèþ....................................................... 41

ÔÐÀÊÒÀËÜÍÀß ÔÈÇÈÊÀ

Ââåäåíèå â íîâóþ ôèçèêó..................................................... 44

1.
Ñóáàòîìíûå ÷àñòèöû è ôîòîíû.

Èõ ôðàêòàëüíàÿ ñòðóêòóðà................................................ 45

2.
Ñòðóêòóðà ïðîñòðàíñòâà.................................................. 48

3.
Ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîå åäèíñòâî ïðèðîäû............................ 53

4.
Îñíîâíûå àñïåêòû è ðåçóëüòàòû

ôðàêòàëüíîé ôèçèêè ........................................................ 63

**ISBN**** ****J****-301 -021118- 8**

This
second edition of Fractal Physics has been revised and supplemented with a new
part - ‘Fundamental unity of nature’. The author points to the unity of nature,
which has a single united fundamental interaction - electromagnetic
interaction. We know the different phenomena: gravitation, weak and strong
interaction, and evident electromagnetic interaction. However they all have the
same electromagnetic nature. These effects depend only upon the geometry and
structure of the physical systems.

A major
achievement of fractal physics - the establishment of the ‘true’ Shabetnik’s
Law of Gravity. The false law of the interaction of inert masses was maintained
for the last 300 years due to the unscientific representations of the old
physics. This unscientific outlook was derived from various sources. In the 5^{th}
century BC the Ancient Greek philosophers postulated the infinity of the Universe.
In the 16* century Giordano Bruno was burnt for the propagation of such ideas.
In the 20^{th} century the infinity of the universe was experimentally
proved. However, the ruling pharisees financed dead scientific research and
organised the total control of science.

The old
physics explains the sun’s rotation around the galactic centre as the
‘expansion’ of the universe at a speed of 55 km/ sec per 1 MParsec. (In
reality, the velocity of the galactic rotation of the sun is 250 km/sec.) From
this point of view the old physics drew the known conclusion: gravitation is
due to the ‘distortion’ of space, as the universe has a ‘limit’. So, if there
is an ‘end’, consequently there is a ‘beginning’. The old physics explains: the
beginning of the universe at ‘Big Bang’ took place because there is the
so-called ‘relic’ radiation with a temperature of 2.7 K. This outlook came to
the now discredited

conclusions
that the distortion of space leads to ‘relative time’, and any interaction of
nature can occur just at a speed, which is less than the speed of light.
Besides this, the old physics represents space as some mathematical field
without real partical structure. The bankruptcy of the old physics is due to
the symbiosis of unscientific ideology and the probabilistic representation of
matter. Probability has no real foundation in scientific research. The old
physics was bound up with the false law of gravity, which was the last support
of the unscientific ideas. However, we have to note, that this false law of the
interaction of inert masses was a fine fake for experimental data of the Earth,
but no more - the fake is not valid for the other planets.

This
discovery was made by the author on the example of the solar system. The author
evaluated the sun’s positive charge, which is greater than Jupiter’s negative
charge by a power of 10^{7}. The positive charge of the sun is due to
the plasma ions and the electron plasma flows converting to electromagnetic
radiation.

The
electrical charge of a star can be determined from the mean temperature or from
the movements of planets. The electrical field of a planet is proportional to
1/r^{2} where r is the distance between a star and a planet. In
accordence with this, all planets have a negative charge; the interaction of
the planet systems occurs?, due to the instant action of the electrostatic
induction through space. Also, the author proved that the rotation of the
charged planets around their own axes produces their own magnetic fields.
Besides this, the sun has a strong internal magnetic field estimated to be
about 11 Tesla.

Therefore
we have to say that planets are not just inert masses, but matter of charged
particles. The full force acting on a moving point charge is determined by
electrical and magnetic fields. Due to the universality of the new established
Shabetnik’s

Law of
Gravity, the orbit of a planet is determined by the planet’s charge only, which
is a product of the star’s electrical field. Therefore, the dynamic properties
of completely different physical systems can be similar.

This is
the first time in history that such a physical model has been proposed and
proven by experimented data. Fractal physics is based on the structural
representation of matter and space. In the future fractal physics will be the
foundation of whole natural science.

Fractal
physics has established that space and time are absolute. It is the”
consequence of the law of energy conservation. So, space and time have no
beginning or end. Our galaxy is surrounded by billions of galaxies. However,
galaxies are just small ‘atoms’ in the infinite universe. The ‘expansion’ of
the universe at the rate of 55 km/sec is suggested to be a scientific obstruction. We have already
mentioned that the velocity of the sun’s rotation around the centre of our
galaxy is 250 km/sec. The galactic kernel contains a black hole with an immense
magnetic field, which determines the rotation of the sun and the sun’s magnetic
field. Then, the sun induces the surface electrical fields of the planets. This
picture of the universe can be supplemented by a note, that the rotation of
galaxies occurs around a super-cluster of galaxies in according to the
established true Law of Gravity. Also, galaxies can be satellites of other
galaxies. It means that our life depends not only upon the sun, but also upon
information from the centre of our galaxy and from the whole universe. The most
significant result is that fractal physics has discovered a way out of our
galaxy for Man. Now, Man is becoming the Child of the Universe.

Even such a trivial delusion as the expansion
of the universe has had a devastating influence on the moral biosphere of the
Earth. The old physics with its widespread unscientific ideology

is not
just a mistake. It is the expression of the will of the forces of the world’s
destruction. The unnatural ideology and the broken moral biosphere of the Earth
lead to the philosophic conclusion that our superpower countries must finish
their existence by the year 2010.

It is
sounding the requiem for the old physics and research into gravity waves, cold
fusion and the unity of forces. The era of madness and cannibalism is over.
What the people of the Earth were awaiting and discussing so much, came true.
Satanic forces lost their unscientific foundation, which they use as an excuse
for antihuman policies. The Renaissance has begun. In the New Millennium the
physical outlook will be determined by the rules of humanity. Let each be
rewarded according to his deserts.

**22 October 1994**

This book
is an introduction to a new physical model by Dr. Basil D.Shabetnik. This work
presents a new theory of the structure of matter and space. The practical
applications prove a new physical model of nature and show the way forward from
the deadlock of human civilisation.

The forms
and structures of subatomic particles are determined by the author. One of many
confirmations of the composite model of nucleons is the experimental work of
Taylor, Kendall and Friedman (Nobel
prize winners of 1990).

It was
experimentally determined that the structure of space is multiply connected.
The multiple connection is due to vortex threads and tubes, which make
connections throughout space.

It has
been determined that the uncertainty principle is not acausal and is not
relevant to the physical understanding of the real properties of nature.
However, the mathematics of the

uncertainty
principle indicates a variance of light speed; therefore, the uncertainty
principle is no longer the basic foundation. Current physical models (quantum
mechanics) cannot really explain the

structural
genesis of matter, because this model is based upon the random representation
of nature.

The structural determination of matter is the
basis of a new ‘fractal physics.’ The name ‘fractal’ originated from
Latin’fractus’ which has the meaning ‘fractional’, ‘fractured’. The fractal
defines the presence of the rough surface of physical matter.

A triumph of fractal physics is the proof that
biological life chooses stable shapes that closely’ match that of the
electron’s and proton’s form.The achievements of fractal physics look
incredible. The results of the research have been applied to new technology
with success and the field is developing rapidly.

It is
assumed by everyone that electrical conduction is the movement of electrons
through matter. However, fractal physics has proved that photons are the energy
carriers in this phenomenon. Electrons are determined not to move but to stay
rigidly bonded to their atoms. This model of conduction has been applied to
superconductivity, and as a result it has been possible to synthesise very high
temperature super conducting compounds with critical temperatures of greater
than 373 K. The critical temperature of superconductors is defined by the
determined correlation: temperature and entropy versus the quantity and state
of subatomic particles.

A
discovery of the phenomenon of energy conversion indicates an increase of
output energy from 2.19 to 4.2 times that of the input energy. The discovery of
very high temperature superconductors is the basis for the construction of
energy generators. These generators could be substituted for existing nuclear
generators. It is not a secret that nuclear generators are a disaster for the
Earth.

The
new atomic model and atomic spectrum have been described by means of fractal
physics.

The
theoretical model led to the possibility of a new method of propulsion. This
method would theoretically present the possibility of velocities greater than
the speed of light in suitable locations within the ordered states of space
(tubes). The basic principle is the interaction between the body of a spaceship
and an electron flow. The electron flow would be emitted from an electron gun,
placed on the vehicle. The electron flow should rotate around the body. This
sort of propulsion could be substituted for systems currently used to propel
rockets. Rockets can not really ensure the space flight of Man out of our solar
system

and
secure his return to the Earth.

This
research has also led to a new method of transmitting information. The speed of
transmission by this method is greater than the speed of light and could
possibly be instant. The new method would be suitable for spaceships travelling
at the speed of light, because ordinary radio would not work under these
circumstances.

The
author gives a simple explanation for the law of gravity. Also, the author
gives a definition of information and concludes that in an infinite universe we
should observe an instantaneous exchange of information between bodies. The
author concludes that space and time are absolute; and this is the consequence
of the law of conservation of energy.

Observable
background radiation is taken to be ‘relic’ radiation from the ‘Big Bang’. The
author suggests that so-called ‘red-shift’ is due to varying light speed that
is the product of the differing structure of space. The author suggests that
there was no ‘Big Bang’ and there is no expansion of galaxies. Such expansion
is just one of the many confusions of old physics. A mistake of old physics is
to see nature as random. A probability is not a postulate, but the support of
satanic religions and theories. The collapse of world communism is a requiem
for modern physics. Fractal physics is the physics of the 21^{st}
century. This physics will change the world. This new physics is a revolution
in the name of Humanity and Truth made by the Creator.

**4 August 1994**

** **

**FRACTAL PHYSICS**

Dr. Basil
D. Shabetnik presents fractal forms for subatomic particles and the photon, as
well as a structure and a fundamental unity of space. Below, the author
presents the basic results of his research.

The
results of research were presented to:

International
conference ‘Heat- and mass-exchange’, Minsk, 26 May 1988;

All-Union
conference ‘Physics and chemistry of high temperature superconductivity:
theoretical problems’, Kharkov, 26-30 October 1989;

Zyolcovsky
and Gagarin lectures on cosmonautics and aviation, Kaluga, Moscow, 1990-91;

International
conference ‘The physics of nuclear excited lasers and problems of lasers with
nuclear pumping’, Obninsk, 26-29 May 1992;

‘Aviation
and cosmonautics’ magazine No. 12, 1992;

International
conference ‘Material technology of high temperature superconductors’, Kharcov,
5-9 April 1993.

‘Physical
thought of Russia’ magazine No. 1, 1994,1995;

The SU
patent ‘High temperature superconducting compound’ No.1817936 was granted
priority on 22 March 1990.

The SU
patent application ‘The propulsion method of spaceships at velocity of light’
No. 4886217/23 was granted priority on 30 August 1990.

The SU
patent application ‘High temperature superconductor’ Nq 93000556/07 was granted priority on 5 January 1993.

The
fine-structure constant a”^{1} =137.03597 is considered to be a
coupling constant. It indicates an interaction between similar particles and is
a fundamental physical constant. Richard Feynman pointed to a great mystery
underlying this constant. The author re-examines this mystery and attempts to
describe the interaction between electrons using the method of fractal
geometry.

It is
known that the rough surface of matter is fractal in form. Using fractal
geometry the author has determined a form for the electron. The determined form
is a hemisphere. **[See Fig.l.]. **This form of electron is the best
approximation to the ‘real’ rough surface of the electron. For example the
Earth is approximately spherical, but in reality the Earth has many deviations
from a spherical form.

It is
known that the electron has spin and magnetic moment. The fractal determined
form of the electron suggests there is no difference between the theoretical
and practical values for magnetic field due to the angular momentum of electron
spin. In ‘classical’ mechanics the spin momentum is always associated with the
rotation of a body only, but in quantum mechanics there is no explanation for
‘real’ spin. However, it was practically observed that the value is half the
theoretical result. Therefore, the author concludes that the value *V2 *is
not simply the spin of the electron, but it is the coefficient of divergence of
the practical observation and the theoretical calculation, for spin versus
field. Consequently, the hemispherical form of the electron indicated the
correct understanding of the value *V2 *for the electron spin. The
determined electron shape explain the dispersion of the electron beam in the
Stern-Gerlach experiment. The dispersion

*Figl. The fractal structures of
subatomic particles and*

*the photon*

of the
electron beam in a nonhomogeneous field into two parts is a separation in
accordance with the spatial orientation of the electrons.

The
determined shape of the electron led to the approximate fractal structure of
the proton and neutron. **[See Fig.l.]. **The magnetic moments of the proton
and neutron are due to the structural form of quarks. It is known that the
magnetic moment of a particle is represented by a number. This characterises
the response of a particle to an external magnetic field. The magnetic

moments have
been calculated and expressed in the following terms:

*Ìð=Ã(1/3)+Ã(2/3) / 12,0944=2,79,*

** **where *Mp *is the magnetic
moment of a proton.

*Ìï=Ã(2/3)+2Ã(1/3) / 9,2146=1,93,*

where Mn
is the magnetic moment of a neutron. The expression of the electron magnetic
moment *Me *is:

*Ìå**=Ã**(1)+0=1,00*

The
neutron magnetic moment M« and proton magnetic moment *Mp *are expressed
in nuclear magnetons. The electron magnetic moment Me is expressed in Bohr
magnetons. F(z) is the Gamma function. The numbers 12.0944 and 9.2146 are local
fractal dimensions of the proton and neutron. These fractal dimensions can be
simply calculated by the well-known method of fractal geometry. The values 1.00
; 1.93 and 2.79 of magnetic moment coincide with experimental data within the
accuracy of ‘vacuum additions’ to the magnetic moment. It is suggested by the
author that the measurement of magnetic moment for the neutron is not accurate.
This is because the theoretical value and practically observed value are not in
close agreement. This discrepancy is a product of the neutron instability.

The
experimental work of Taylor, Kendall and Friedman (1990 Nobel prize winners)
has confirmed the composite model of nucleons; the form and position of these
constituent parts were not described, they were assumed to be quarks. This work
indicated that there were structural differences between the neutron and the
proton.

The
author then considered the photon. **[See Fig.l.]. **It is generally
described as a wave packet. The suggested image of the photon as a volumetric
figure of eight has been confirmed by the following experiment. Photons with
known energy interacting with an atomic field can be converted to electron

and
positron pairs and the paths of their movement can be observed. The author
suggests that the photon, a combination of two modes of electromagnetic
oscillation in contraphase, represents a standing wave. A conformation of the
suggested photon structure may be visible in the Compton Effect.

The
fractal forms of subatomic particles suggested by the author could form the
basis of the ‘structural’ understanding of matter and they explain the essence
of the uncertainty principle.

From the
determination of the photon as suggested above, and the physical sense of the
Planck constant **ħ*** , *the author has drawn the following conclusion.
The mathematics of the uncertainty principle indicates a variance of light
speed. If we take the correlation of uncertainty we can deduce a change of time
**Δ****1=1/2****ω***. *During
this time interval, the characteristics of the propagation of light are
changed. Light propagates at a velocity characterised by the wavelength **λ***. *The time **t=****λ****/****ñ** is
the period. We can see that the change of time, **Δ****t**, is
defined by the change of speed **Δñ**.
The change of speed, **Δñ**,
gives wavelength change **Δλ***, *as the
photon frequency, **ω**,
will not change. From this the change of light speed can be simply calculated.
The author calculated an increase of light speed from c to **ñ****(1+1/8****π****). **Where *c = ***299792458 **m/s and
**π****=3,14.... **This
result tells us that space is not homogeneous but has at least two different
states. The first state is ordered (polarised vacuum) and the second is
disordered (non-polarised vacuum). Space is a structure of massless collapsible
photons. The microstructure of space (i.e. photon) is suggested to be the
structure of two oscillators, which represent standing waves. Eachoscillato has
two equal degrees of freedom that are weakly linked. The order or disorder of
space can be formed by differing compositions of massless collapsible photons **(see
Fig.2). **Also, it has been indicated that a phase-shift of the ordered
structure is **ħ/2***. *This phase-shift of the ordered state is due to the opposite currents of
the each half of the photon.

Space
would be multiply connected, as there would exist an ordered and disordered
state of structure. However the ordered state will not exist indefinitely in
the midst of the disordered state. Therefore, to prolong the existence of the
ordered state it has been suggested that a vortex movement should form, and
effectively isolate order from disorder. As the vortex moves in a medium of no
‘viscosity’ the order would exist indefinitely.

The
author suggests that these vortices take the form of tubes and threads. The
vortex threads and tubes would make connections throughout space. One of the
possible images of a vortex thread **(see Fig.2) **is a row of concentric
circumferences, which are perpendicular to the axis of the thread. On the
boundary of the two different states, the microstructures of space i.e. the
above mentioned oscillators, tend to change state from ordered to disordered.
The energy of this change of state is emitted as electromagnetic radiation and
distributed throughout the microstructure of space. The frequency of this
radiation is not constant and depends upon the sizes of ordered areas. The
temperature of this radiation is 2.7 K (component of background radiation).
This radiation forms a part of the Universal spectrum. Also, it is possible
that the density of space in certain areas is of a very small value, and that
light experiences ‘damping’ in this region. Such a region - a black hole - was
found in the centre of our galaxy. The author considers the black hole in the
next paragraph.

Some
experiments to determine the variable structure of space have been made.
Pendulums constructed from different materials have been suspended by a fine
line. The first sample was a small permanent magnet. The second was a sample of
ultra high temperature superconductor of approximately the same mass. And the
third pendulum was a sample of a semiconductor. A general ‘search’ of many
locations has been made by enforced oscillation of the pendulums. In certain
locations that were studied, the amplitude of the oscillations would vary; this
variation was dependent upon the material of the pendulum. The amplitude of the
magnetic pendulum has been observed to increase in certain locations; however,
the super conducting pendulum experienced damping in the same location. The
semiconducting pendulum in the locations of the tubes and threads was ejected
as well

as the
magnetic one. The cause of this effect is suggested to be the Magnus force.
Besides this, these experiments detect that the ordered structures of space
have similar properties to super fluid He II, and hard (type II)
superconductors. Due to this properties, it is obvious that the tubes and
threads have to be free from cosmic dust and small pieces of meteorites. The
author has offered

to use
the tubes for transport in galaxies. The propulsion model has a new principle:
the interaction between the super conducting body of a spaceship and an
electron flow, which is emitted by the spaceship itself. It is suggested that
this method would present the possibility of velocities greater than speed of
light in suitable location (i.e. tubes).

Therefore the uncertainty principle is no longer
relevant

to the
physical understanding of the ‘real’ properties of nature. Current physical
models (quantum mechanics) cannot describe many of the relationships observed
in nature, as the basic foundation for quantum mechanics cannot be described.
Quantum mechanics cannot even really answer simple questions of requirement for
biology, geology, chemistry and other sciences by physical proof.

Fractal
physics explains a great many phenomena and processes. For example, Fig.3 is a
fractal hemispherical structure called ‘brain sand’ (photograph courtesy of Dr.
S. Holubew). This biological form is one of the many confirmations of the
fractal structure of nature. This also confirms that ‘life’ chooses these same
stable shapes that closely match that of the form of the electron and the
proton. It has been suggested that not only spherical but also hemispherical
forms are the most stable in nature. An example of the fractal structure of particles
was published in ‘New Scientist’ (No_1901/ 27.11.93/p.37).

The
author suggests that this work establishes the basic principles of a ‘new’
fractal physics. This new physical model bases itself on understanding and the
reality of the structure of nature. All matter is observed to have fractal
form. Therefore this ‘new’ physics takes the name: ‘Fractal physics’.

Nature
has a united and simple foundation. It is enough to mention the small number of
subatomic particles and the suggested structure of space. These simplest
electrical models determine the great variety of natural phenomena. Here we see
the importance of a limited number of laws, which determine interactions
between bodies of matter. Fractal physics gives us the possibility of
discovering the deep unity of the material world

and
determining the united interaction, which governs phenomena J and processes in
electromagnetic nature. Different effects are essentially the
product of the geometry
and structure of fundamental electromagnetic space.

So, not
only the propagation of information via the structure of space, but also the
interactions in the solar system, have to be electromagnetic. The interactions
of the solar system are determined only by electrical charges. It is the
property of elementary particles to bear a charge, therefore every planet and
the sun has to have the same property - to be electrically charged. Proceeding
from the structural representation of matter we can reach the conclusion, that
the sun and the planets must be considered not just inert masses of bodies, but
as the matter of fundamental particles.

Indeed,
the mean surface density of the negative electrical charge of the Earth is **ơ**** **= **-1.15 nC/m ^{2}. **The
charge of the Earth is

The mean
temperature of the sun is **T **= **1.3*10 K. **The sun’s positive
electrical charge can be calculated by the same method: **Q
= + 3,****Ç*****10 ^{14}
**

the sun’s
electrical charge is determined by ions of plasma, for the electron flows of
the sun’s plasma turns the electromagnetic radiation.

So, the
solar system consists of electrically charged spherical bodies; the sun has a
positive charge greater then Jupiter’s negative charge by a power of 10 . The
spherical planets are arranged around the sun at distances much greater than
their sizes. Therefore the solar system can be considered as the system of
point charges. The characteristics of the solar system and the moon collected
in **Table 1.**

The
interaction between the moving charged planets and the Sun is determined by the
Lorenz force and may be represented by ( for SI units ):

The first
term of the formula is a force acting on a point charge in electrical field E;
the second term is a force acting on a point charge in magnetic field B. (Note
that previously an electrical field has been considered as just the method of description
of the interaction of charges at a distance.) This interaction is expressed by
Coulomb’s Law.

In our
calculation the sun’s and the planets’ surface magnetic fields were not taken
into account, because their influence is too weak.

So,
Coulomb’s Law and the law of energy conservation gave us the possibility of
calculating the parameters of the solar system. For the definition of the
parameters of the solar system, it was assumed, that the gyro-magnetic ratio of
point charge is

**q/ m = 1 / 4****π**** ****( for SI units).**

The
gyro-magnetic ratio for point charge defines a change of mass in comparison a
change of charge. Here, in the general

case, we used
a normalising coefficient:

**4πε _{0}=4π/(36π*10^{9})**

Also, the
author is positive that the determination of the gyro-magnetic ratio for point
charge is one of the confirmations of the structural representation of matter.

The
established law of the fundamental interaction between the bodies of space led
to another conclusion. The third Keplerian law and the Gaussian law for the
flux of electrical field actually are the same law of nature, just expressed in
different forms. The author unified these two laws into one formula (for CGS
units):

**R ^{3}/**

The
right part of the equation characterises the Gaussian law in a plane, as every
planet of the solar system rotates approximately in one plane. Besides that, it
is known that the Coulomb’s Law and the Gaussian Law are not independent and
are just the different expressions of one natural law.

The
parameters of the moving planets may be determined very accurately by the sun’s
charge, which is estimated from the mean temperature of the sun. The author
made a connection between the electrical field of any planet and the charge of
the sun. The author is positive that the electrical field of a planet is
induced by the sun’s field. As the attraction of a planet on a body is defined
by the planet’s charge, we see that the free fall acceleration is defined by
the value of the electrical field at this planet; and the escape velocities
also depend upon the planet size.

The axial rotation of a planet may depend upon the distribution of the
planet charge in the body of this planet. For example, the moon has a different
distribution of its charge on the visible and dark sides. This is the real
cause of the moon’s synchronism of its movement by only one side around the
Earth. The different

distribution
of the moon’s charge has a correlation with the different structures of each
side of the moon. The charge of the moon has been calculated from the geometric
mean of the electric fields of the sun and Earth.

The
individual magnetic field of every planet has been calculated in accordance
with the Biot-Savart Law for moving charges. The magnetic field of a planet is
determined by the surface density of charge, the velocity of axial rotation and
the planet size. Jupiter has the greatest magnetic field, Jupiter’s magnetic
field is ten times greater than the magnetic field of the Earth. (The Earth’s
magnetic field is 0.53 Gauss.) The internal magnetic field of the sun is a
large value, which is estimated to be about 11 Tesla. The surface mean magnetic
field of the sun has a value about 1 Gauss. This question will be considered
below. The characteristics of Pluto and the moon are nearly equal.

The
magnetic field of a planet has an effect upon free fall acceleration, and it
has to be taken into account. For instance, the free fall acceleration of the
Earth is different at the magnetic equator and at the magnetic pole. The full
force, acting upon a point charge, is defined as the force of attraction -
Coulomb’s Law, as well as the force of repulsion, which exists due to the
action of the magnetic field of a planet. The explanation of this effect is as
follows. As a point charge and a planet together have the rotation (around the
axis of the planet) at a time of interaction, we can draw on an analogy with
two electrical currents of opposite directions. Such currents always repulse. The
opposite charge of a charge point (for example, the charge of a satellite) is
due to the instant action of the electrostatic induction of the planet field.

The
nature of forces of the universe was discovered due to the established law of a
force, which determines the movement of point charges in space. Here, it is
essential to take into account

the law of
energy conservation.

So,
it is known that the solar system rotates around the centre of our galaxy at
the velocity of 250 km/sec. (Note, the old physics explains it as the speed of
the ‘expansion’ of the universe at a rate of 55 km/sec per 1 MParsec. From this
point the old physics came to the following unscientific conclusion: as the
universe is ‘finite’, gravitation is due to the ‘bend’ of space. The radiation
of space at 2.7 K was submitted to be ‘relic’ radiation of the ‘Beginning’ at
the moment of ‘Big Bang’. From such ideology the ‘bend of space’ leads to the
idea of the speed limit of any interaction and’ relative time’. The
unscientific physics tries to prove that space is just a mathematical field
without a real physical structure. The bankruptcy of the old physics is due
to the symbiosis of unscientific
ideas and the insolvent stochastic representation of matter. Therefore the old
physics holds for the false law of the attraction of the inert masses. This
false law was the last support of the unscientific representation of matter.
However, this law is a very clever fake for the experimental data of the Earth,
but no more. The fake is not valid for the other planets.)

The sun
rotates around an axis coming through the centre of the galaxy. The period of
the rotation is approximately 250 million years. The distance from the sun to
the galactic centre is estimated to be about 10 kParsec. The galactic centre is
located in the direction of Sagittarius. The centre presents a large elliptical
kernel, which is separated by a black hole. The black hole weakens light by at
least in 10000 times. The elliptical form of the kernel is evidence of its fast
rotation. The rotation of the galactic centre was confirmed by the known direct
astronomical measurements. The red giant stars with effective temperatures 3500
-5000K belong to the structure of the galactic kernel. The maximum intensity of
the radiation of these stars is in the red and infrared

parts of
the spectrum. The spectro-photometric methods detected an increase of the
infrared radiation of the Milky Way at the sun’s moving towards the galactic
centre, and a decrease of the temperature of the Milky Way in the centre in
comparison with the other directions. The radio-astronomical observations at
wavelength 2 Ism recovered the structure of the galactic kernel. There is a
spiral hydrogenous ‘arm’ directly connected to the kernel. Another hydrogen
‘arm’ exists from the other side of the kernel. The gas and electron ejections
of the kernel take place in two opposite directions along the lines of the
kernel’s magnetic field. The analysis of the kernel structure discovered the
essence of this phenomenon - the ordered movements of the dense scattering
negatively charged clouds of the gas and the fast electrons.

So, the
galactic kernel represents a magneto-dynamic plasma configuration with rotation
and a super-strong magnetic field. This field is the cause of the informational
lack about the centre of our galaxy. Besides this, the decrease of the
temperature of the Milky Way is the consequence of the presence of the black
hole in the galactic centre.

From the
properties of the galactic centre and the established law of fundamental
interaction we can calculate the magnetic field at the sun’s orbit and the
field of the black hole. The sun is a charge point rotating around the galactic
centre with the radius r<> in a plane, which is perpendicular to the
galactic magnetic field B. In this case, the Lorenz force is a centripetal
force. Therefore, the magnetic field at the orbit of the sun can be determined
by the following equation:

**Borbit=****
mV / (4πε _{ο}qr_{ο})= 4π •
250000 / [ 4π (1/ 36π • 10^{9}) 10 • 3,086·10^{16}·10^{3} ]= 0,9 • 10^{-4} **

The
experimental measurement shows this weak magnetic field exists on the sun’s
surface everywhere.

From the
definition of the circulation of the magnetic field of the sun, we can estimate
that there is some ordered movement

of
currents Lent™ at a rate of **1.4*10 **A. The magnetic field in the black
hole may be calculated, if we just imagine that the galactic centre represents
a solenoid. Bcentre = **1.7 *** **10 Tesla. **The quasi-periodic changes
of the kernel’s activity correlates with the rotation of an object, which has a
period of about a few years. It causes the changes in the sun’s activity. The
sun’s movement around the galactic centre is similar to an interaction in a
cyclic accelerator of charged particles. The stability of such interaction
exists due to the synchronising between the magnetic field in the kernel and
the magnetic field on the orbit of the sun.

Our
stellar system has galaxy-satellites. They are known as the Big and Small
Magellanic Clouds. As they are just satellites, they do not have their own
kernels. The positive charges of these systems interact with the negative
charge of the kernel of our galaxy. Our galaxy together with the neighbouring
galaxies rotates around a central thickening - the cluster of galaxies in the
constellation of Virgo. From the parameters of this movement, it is simple to
calculate the positive charge of the super-cluster of galaxies. Note, our
super-cluster of galaxies has as neighbours: a super-cluster of galaxies in the
constellation of Leo and a super-cluster in the constellation of Hercules. Our
galaxy is placed in the midst of other galaxies, but galaxies are just small
‘atoms’ in the infinite world.

So, the
interaction of charged bodies exists due to the instant action of
electromagnetic force through the structure of space. This is the exact wording
of the established Law of Gravity. This Law is also valid for the small
distances between charges under the condition of the spherical form of bodies
and the even distribution of charges.

So, the
effects of the strong and weak interactions relate to the united fundamental
interaction, because they take place under circumstances of different forms of matter.

Only the geometry
and structure of space, as mention above, lead to quite different effects. As
nature basically is a very complicated composition of charged particles, the
fundamental interaction should be just one - the electromagnetic interaction.
However, it appears in different forms: gravitation, the weak and strong
interaction, the evident electromagnetic interaction. This is the essence of
the nature of the force, which determines the universe.

Modern
physics was established at the beginning of the twentieth century. This physics
is based upon the random representation of nature and has difficulty making
‘sense’ of the structure of the Universe. Therefore, modern physics does not
really explain the structural genesis of matter, but provides us with the
capability of stochastic prediction only. There existed a need to apply a ‘new’
physical model for the further understanding of the macroworld and microworld,
revealing the internal connections of phenomena and the more detailed
information of nature.

The
subject of fractal physics is the study of properties, structures and
conversions of matter. It indicates that matter, and the formation of its
structure, is independent of the observer. The first application of fractal
physics was to study the structure of elementary particles - the electron,
proton, neutron and photon. These forms have been studied first as they are the
keys to the

structure
of nature. In 1987, the author had completed the determination of the fractal
structures of the electron, proton, neutron and photon. Proceeding from this,
he also discovered relationships between the fundamental parameters of phase
transitions: temperature and entropy, versus the quantity and state of
subatomic particles and the photon, i.e., the position of the elements in
Mendeleyev’s periodic table. It gave a way to determine the phenomenon of
energy conversion, which indicated an increase of output energy from 2.19 to
4.2 times that of the input energy, at the change of phase. This calculation
applies to only one uncoupled valence electron of compound. This ratio
increases incrementally with ascending numbers of valence electrons. Increasing
output energy depends upon the internal energy of matter, and the type of particles
carrying this energy (fermions or bosons).

Fractal
physics proves that nature has a unity and united fundamental electromagnetic
interaction. This electromagnetic interaction determines the ‘real’ law of
gravity; the interaction of bodies is due to electromagnetic forces through the
structure of space.

The
results of the above research have been applied to new technology with success
and the field is developing rapidly.

Fractal
physics has been applied to electrical conduction and it revealed the nature of
this phenomenon. Photons are, firstly, the initiators of the excitement of
atomic electrons. Secondly, photons are the energy carriers of excited atomic
electrons. Electrons are determined not to move but to stay rigidly bonded to
their atoms. This model of conduction has been applied to superconductivity,
and as a result it was possible to synthesise a very high temperature
superconducting compound with a critical temperature of grater then 373 K.

**Fig.4 **is the energetic image of the
phenomenon of superconductivity in ceramic compounds. A plane representing a
two-dimensional crystal lattice forms a corpuscular system consisting of 3 or 4
elements. The central component contains six outer electrons and the higher and
lower energy elements have three outer electrons each. Electrons of elements
are coupled in pairs with the poles of their fractal forms together. Between
the poles there is an attraction potential due to the differences in binding
energy. At a given instant, one of the electrons of the first element issues a
quantum of electromagnetic field (photon).

Interaction
of such a type is inherent to electrically charged particles. Photons are the
energy carriers and do not have charge; however, the photon structure has two
oppositely charged parts. The rate at which the particles interact with each
other is relative to the rate of energy transfer through the system;
classically current. The action passes from particle to particle via the
nucleus of the central element to the outer electrons of the third (or fourth)
element. Thus the exchange of energy between the electrons of the higher and
lower energy elements occurs without dissipation. From such an interaction the
critical current of high temperature ceramic superconductors is determined by
the atomic mass content of the lower energy component.

The
critical temperature of transition to the superconducting state is determined
by the presence of ionic-molecules in the crystal structure; the ions appear in
force of spatial restrictions and atomic interactions. Heat changes distances
between the ions; and the rate of perfect energy exchange dimishes between the
outer electrons, as the attraction potential of the electrons becomes chaotic.
The critical temperature of superconducting transition can be expressed by the
following equation:

Where **e
**= **2.718... **; **Z **= atomic number expressing proton nuclear
charge; I = quantum number of change of state (+1, 0,-1); change of state is
due to absorption or emission of a quantum of energy by the atom; **n **=
the period number in the periodic table of elements; σ = number of atoms in the molecule;
J = quantum number ( +1; 0; -1) characterising the change of electron energy
level; N = number of outer electrons of atoms, equal to the number of the group
in the periodic table.

Any
phase change has the change of entropy **ΔS** that

characterises
the leap of heat capacity. The entropy change can be expressed as follows:

Where
π = 3.141... , A = atomic mass (the number of nucleons), Z = atomic number
( the number of electrons) , I = quantum number ( +1, 0 , -1 ) characterising
an emitted or absorbed photon. Here Cv = (A + Z+ I ) ≤ 25 is the thermal
capacity of matter.

A
thermo-electric generator was constructed; this indicated an increase in output
energy of 2.2 : 1. This is in agreement with the theoretical emission of
radiation at the change of phase of matter. Indeed from the determined
correlation for the change of entropy of matter we see a connection between the
output energy release of phase change ( W ) and spent energy ( P):

where k
is the coefficient of energy conversion for one outer uncoupled electron of
compound. The coefficient has a range from 2.19 to 4.2 ; its mean value is *n.
*The coefficient depends upon the type of interacting particles and rate of
energy exchange.

During
studies at certain locations, we find indications that space is multiply
connected. This connection is in agreement with the theoretical presence of
tubes and threads. The structure of space could be considered to be different
within and surrounding these particular locations. Space can be ordered or
disordered in structure.

The
theory states that speed of light is not constant, but has a tendency to
increase in the ordered vortex zones to c(l + 1/8π). It has been proved
that the uncertainty principle is not acausal, but is the differential of the
speed of light. Consequently the old physics has lost its foundation.

field of
‘moving electrons’ and the failure to observe an increase of the electric field
of an accelerating electron. This gives a new presentation of matter and
specifically a ‘new’ model for the atom and its spectrum. From an spectral
analises of atoms the author has discovered a connection between the potential
energy of an atom ( Watom) and the associated atomic number (Z) in the periodic
table, as fallows:

where
Watom is expressed in electronvolts. This equation expresses the connection
between energy and the quantity of matter.

From the
fractal representation of the atomic structure a connection can be made between
the potential nuclear energy (Wnucleus) and the number of protons (Z) and
neutrons (N). This may be expressed as follows:

where
Wnucleus is expressed in MeV; D is the main fractal dimension of a nucleus. D =
1 for the nucleus of Helium 2He^{4} . From the second period of the
periodic table the main fractal dimension of the nucleus is determined as
follows:

*D = InN / (2In n),*

where n
is the period in the periodic table. For the upper rows of the long periods, 4,
5 and 6, the value n has to be taken as the geometric mean of the period number
n and the number of the previous period n-1, i.e. √n(n-l). Two components
in the brackets of this expression for the nuclear energy, represent the
respective intensity of the protons and neutrons. The total value of the
nuclear energy is equal to the work needed to fission the nucleus into the
constituent protons and neutrons. The experimental data for the nuclear binding
energy accurately confirm the connection for every element in the periodic
table. Hereby the unscientific correlation between energy and inert mass may be
removed.

Consequently,
we see the difference of propagations for light and for information. In
practical terms, this means that life on Earth depends not only upon the sun,
but also on information coming from the centre of the galaxy and from
everywhere in the universe.

It seems
to the author that the law of conservation and the law of absolute space and
time provide the basis for the understanding of nature. They are correct in
both in the macroworld and the microworld, and therefore, they suggest
unification.

Thus,
fractal physics has its origins in the teachings of Democrates, Aristarchus,
Copernicus, Gallileo, Kepler, Coulomb, Dalton, Mendeleyev, Planck and
Vernadsky. They declared the basis of ‘real’ knowledge of nature.

**Dr. Basil D. Shabetnik.**