I hl» edition puhlOltetJ IMWI
by A.OYLYS , Kmiiim, I llhiuiili
Copyright O Basil SlmixMiilk
First published 1994
Revised edition published 1994
The right of Basil D. Shabetnik to be iilciillfied u (hi author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright |)#«lgni and Patents Act 1988. This work is intellectual property of Dr. lull D. Shabetnik. 125493, Moscow, Konakowskiy, 4 - 64
All rights reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
This book is an introduction to a ‘new’ theory of matter and space. The author presents a ‘fundamental unity of nature’ and a ‘real’ Law of Gravity Practical applications prove this physical model and show a way forward from the deadlock of human civilisation.
Ýòà êíèãà çíàêîìèò ñ íîâûì ïðåäñòàâëåíèåì ìàòåðèè, â òîì ÷èñëå è ïðîñòðàíñòâà. Â íåé ðàññìîòðåíî ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîå åäèíñòâî ïðèðîäû è îòðàæåíî óñòàíîâëåíèå äåéñòûèòåëüíîãî çàêîíà òÿãîòåíèÿ. Â êíèãå ïðåäñòàâëåíû äîñòèãíóòûå ðåçóëüòàòû, êîòîðûå îáîñíîâûâàþò íîâóþ íàóêó î ïðèðîäå è îïðåäåëÿþò âûõîä èç òóïèêîâîãî ðàçâèòèÿ Çåìíîé öèâèëèçàöèè.
CONTENTS - ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Preface of the scientific editor............................................... 4
Preface to the first publication of Fractal Physics............. 8
Introduction to a new physical model................................ 11
1. Subatomic particles and the photon.
Their fractal structure......................................................... 12
2. The structure of space..................................................... 15
3. Fundamental unity of nature............................................. 19
4. The basic aspects and results of Fractal physics... 28
Ïðåäèñëîâèå íàó÷íîãî ðåäàêòîðà........................................ 37
Ïðåäèñëîâèå íàó÷íîãî ðåäàêòîðà
ê ïåðâîìó èçäàíèþ....................................................... 41
Ââåäåíèå â íîâóþ ôèçèêó..................................................... 44
1. Ñóáàòîìíûå ÷àñòèöû è ôîòîíû.
Èõ ôðàêòàëüíàÿ ñòðóêòóðà................................................ 45
2. Ñòðóêòóðà ïðîñòðàíñòâà.................................................. 48
3. Ôóíäàìåíòàëüíîå åäèíñòâî ïðèðîäû............................ 53
4. Îñíîâíûå àñïåêòû è ðåçóëüòàòû
ôðàêòàëüíîé ôèçèêè ........................................................ 63
ISBN J-301 -021118- 8
This second edition of Fractal Physics has been revised and supplemented with a new part - ‘Fundamental unity of nature’. The author points to the unity of nature, which has a single united fundamental interaction - electromagnetic interaction. We know the different phenomena: gravitation, weak and strong interaction, and evident electromagnetic interaction. However they all have the same electromagnetic nature. These effects depend only upon the geometry and structure of the physical systems.
A major achievement of fractal physics - the establishment of the ‘true’ Shabetnik’s Law of Gravity. The false law of the interaction of inert masses was maintained for the last 300 years due to the unscientific representations of the old physics. This unscientific outlook was derived from various sources. In the 5th century BC the Ancient Greek philosophers postulated the infinity of the Universe. In the 16* century Giordano Bruno was burnt for the propagation of such ideas. In the 20th century the infinity of the universe was experimentally proved. However, the ruling pharisees financed dead scientific research and organised the total control of science.
The old physics explains the sun’s rotation around the galactic centre as the ‘expansion’ of the universe at a speed of 55 km/ sec per 1 MParsec. (In reality, the velocity of the galactic rotation of the sun is 250 km/sec.) From this point of view the old physics drew the known conclusion: gravitation is due to the ‘distortion’ of space, as the universe has a ‘limit’. So, if there is an ‘end’, consequently there is a ‘beginning’. The old physics explains: the beginning of the universe at ‘Big Bang’ took place because there is the so-called ‘relic’ radiation with a temperature of 2.7 K. This outlook came to the now discredited
conclusions that the distortion of space leads to ‘relative time’, and any interaction of nature can occur just at a speed, which is less than the speed of light. Besides this, the old physics represents space as some mathematical field without real partical structure. The bankruptcy of the old physics is due to the symbiosis of unscientific ideology and the probabilistic representation of matter. Probability has no real foundation in scientific research. The old physics was bound up with the false law of gravity, which was the last support of the unscientific ideas. However, we have to note, that this false law of the interaction of inert masses was a fine fake for experimental data of the Earth, but no more - the fake is not valid for the other planets.
This discovery was made by the author on the example of the solar system. The author evaluated the sun’s positive charge, which is greater than Jupiter’s negative charge by a power of 107. The positive charge of the sun is due to the plasma ions and the electron plasma flows converting to electromagnetic radiation.
The electrical charge of a star can be determined from the mean temperature or from the movements of planets. The electrical field of a planet is proportional to 1/r2 where r is the distance between a star and a planet. In accordence with this, all planets have a negative charge; the interaction of the planet systems occurs?, due to the instant action of the electrostatic induction through space. Also, the author proved that the rotation of the charged planets around their own axes produces their own magnetic fields. Besides this, the sun has a strong internal magnetic field estimated to be about 11 Tesla.
Therefore we have to say that planets are not just inert masses, but matter of charged particles. The full force acting on a moving point charge is determined by electrical and magnetic fields. Due to the universality of the new established Shabetnik’s
Law of Gravity, the orbit of a planet is determined by the planet’s charge only, which is a product of the star’s electrical field. Therefore, the dynamic properties of completely different physical systems can be similar.
This is the first time in history that such a physical model has been proposed and proven by experimented data. Fractal physics is based on the structural representation of matter and space. In the future fractal physics will be the foundation of whole natural science.
Fractal physics has established that space and time are absolute. It is the” consequence of the law of energy conservation. So, space and time have no beginning or end. Our galaxy is surrounded by billions of galaxies. However, galaxies are just small ‘atoms’ in the infinite universe. The ‘expansion’ of the universe at the rate of 55 km/sec is suggested to be a scientific obstruction. We have already mentioned that the velocity of the sun’s rotation around the centre of our galaxy is 250 km/sec. The galactic kernel contains a black hole with an immense magnetic field, which determines the rotation of the sun and the sun’s magnetic field. Then, the sun induces the surface electrical fields of the planets. This picture of the universe can be supplemented by a note, that the rotation of galaxies occurs around a super-cluster of galaxies in according to the established true Law of Gravity. Also, galaxies can be satellites of other galaxies. It means that our life depends not only upon the sun, but also upon information from the centre of our galaxy and from the whole universe. The most significant result is that fractal physics has discovered a way out of our galaxy for Man. Now, Man is becoming the Child of the Universe.
Even such a trivial delusion as the expansion of the universe has had a devastating influence on the moral biosphere of the Earth. The old physics with its widespread unscientific ideology
is not just a mistake. It is the expression of the will of the forces of the world’s destruction. The unnatural ideology and the broken moral biosphere of the Earth lead to the philosophic conclusion that our superpower countries must finish their existence by the year 2010.
It is sounding the requiem for the old physics and research into gravity waves, cold fusion and the unity of forces. The era of madness and cannibalism is over. What the people of the Earth were awaiting and discussing so much, came true. Satanic forces lost their unscientific foundation, which they use as an excuse for antihuman policies. The Renaissance has begun. In the New Millennium the physical outlook will be determined by the rules of humanity. Let each be rewarded according to his deserts.
22 October 1994
This book is an introduction to a new physical model by Dr. Basil D.Shabetnik. This work presents a new theory of the structure of matter and space. The practical applications prove a new physical model of nature and show the way forward from the deadlock of human civilisation.
The forms and structures of subatomic particles are determined by the author. One of many confirmations of the composite model of nucleons is the experimental work of Taylor, Kendall and Friedman (Nobel prize winners of 1990).
It was experimentally determined that the structure of space is multiply connected. The multiple connection is due to vortex threads and tubes, which make connections throughout space.
It has been determined that the uncertainty principle is not acausal and is not relevant to the physical understanding of the real properties of nature. However, the mathematics of the
uncertainty principle indicates a variance of light speed; therefore, the uncertainty principle is no longer the basic foundation. Current physical models (quantum mechanics) cannot really explain the
structural genesis of matter, because this model is based upon the random representation of nature.
The structural determination of matter is the basis of a new ‘fractal physics.’ The name ‘fractal’ originated from Latin’fractus’ which has the meaning ‘fractional’, ‘fractured’. The fractal defines the presence of the rough surface of physical matter.
A triumph of fractal physics is the proof that biological life chooses stable shapes that closely’ match that of the electron’s and proton’s form.The achievements of fractal physics look incredible. The results of the research have been applied to new technology with success and the field is developing rapidly.
It is assumed by everyone that electrical conduction is the movement of electrons through matter. However, fractal physics has proved that photons are the energy carriers in this phenomenon. Electrons are determined not to move but to stay rigidly bonded to their atoms. This model of conduction has been applied to superconductivity, and as a result it has been possible to synthesise very high temperature super conducting compounds with critical temperatures of greater than 373 K. The critical temperature of superconductors is defined by the determined correlation: temperature and entropy versus the quantity and state of subatomic particles.
A discovery of the phenomenon of energy conversion indicates an increase of output energy from 2.19 to 4.2 times that of the input energy. The discovery of very high temperature superconductors is the basis for the construction of energy generators. These generators could be substituted for existing nuclear generators. It is not a secret that nuclear generators are a disaster for the Earth.
The new atomic model and atomic spectrum have been described by means of fractal physics.
The theoretical model led to the possibility of a new method of propulsion. This method would theoretically present the possibility of velocities greater than the speed of light in suitable locations within the ordered states of space (tubes). The basic principle is the interaction between the body of a spaceship and an electron flow. The electron flow would be emitted from an electron gun, placed on the vehicle. The electron flow should rotate around the body. This sort of propulsion could be substituted for systems currently used to propel rockets. Rockets can not really ensure the space flight of Man out of our solar system
and secure his return to the Earth.
This research has also led to a new method of transmitting information. The speed of transmission by this method is greater than the speed of light and could possibly be instant. The new method would be suitable for spaceships travelling at the speed of light, because ordinary radio would not work under these circumstances.
The author gives a simple explanation for the law of gravity. Also, the author gives a definition of information and concludes that in an infinite universe we should observe an instantaneous exchange of information between bodies. The author concludes that space and time are absolute; and this is the consequence of the law of conservation of energy.
Observable background radiation is taken to be ‘relic’ radiation from the ‘Big Bang’. The author suggests that so-called ‘red-shift’ is due to varying light speed that is the product of the differing structure of space. The author suggests that there was no ‘Big Bang’ and there is no expansion of galaxies. Such expansion is just one of the many confusions of old physics. A mistake of old physics is to see nature as random. A probability is not a postulate, but the support of satanic religions and theories. The collapse of world communism is a requiem for modern physics. Fractal physics is the physics of the 21st century. This physics will change the world. This new physics is a revolution in the name of Humanity and Truth made by the Creator.
4 August 1994
Dr. Basil D. Shabetnik presents fractal forms for subatomic particles and the photon, as well as a structure and a fundamental unity of space. Below, the author presents the basic results of his research.
The results of research were presented to:
International conference ‘Heat- and mass-exchange’, Minsk, 26 May 1988;
All-Union conference ‘Physics and chemistry of high temperature superconductivity: theoretical problems’, Kharkov, 26-30 October 1989;
Zyolcovsky and Gagarin lectures on cosmonautics and aviation, Kaluga, Moscow, 1990-91;
International conference ‘The physics of nuclear excited lasers and problems of lasers with nuclear pumping’, Obninsk, 26-29 May 1992;
‘Aviation and cosmonautics’ magazine No. 12, 1992;
International conference ‘Material technology of high temperature superconductors’, Kharcov, 5-9 April 1993.
‘Physical thought of Russia’ magazine No. 1, 1994,1995;
The SU patent ‘High temperature superconducting compound’ No.1817936 was granted priority on 22 March 1990.
The SU patent application ‘The propulsion method of spaceships at velocity of light’ No. 4886217/23 was granted priority on 30 August 1990.
The SU patent application ‘High temperature superconductor’ Nq 93000556/07 was granted priority on 5 January 1993.
The fine-structure constant a”1 =137.03597 is considered to be a coupling constant. It indicates an interaction between similar particles and is a fundamental physical constant. Richard Feynman pointed to a great mystery underlying this constant. The author re-examines this mystery and attempts to describe the interaction between electrons using the method of fractal geometry.
It is known that the rough surface of matter is fractal in form. Using fractal geometry the author has determined a form for the electron. The determined form is a hemisphere. [See Fig.l.]. This form of electron is the best approximation to the ‘real’ rough surface of the electron. For example the Earth is approximately spherical, but in reality the Earth has many deviations from a spherical form.
It is known that the electron has spin and magnetic moment. The fractal determined form of the electron suggests there is no difference between the theoretical and practical values for magnetic field due to the angular momentum of electron spin. In ‘classical’ mechanics the spin momentum is always associated with the rotation of a body only, but in quantum mechanics there is no explanation for ‘real’ spin. However, it was practically observed that the value is half the theoretical result. Therefore, the author concludes that the value V2 is not simply the spin of the electron, but it is the coefficient of divergence of the practical observation and the theoretical calculation, for spin versus field. Consequently, the hemispherical form of the electron indicated the correct understanding of the value V2 for the electron spin. The determined electron shape explain the dispersion of the electron beam in the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The dispersion
Figl. The fractal structures of subatomic particles and
of the electron beam in a nonhomogeneous field into two parts is a separation in accordance with the spatial orientation of the electrons.
The determined shape of the electron led to the approximate fractal structure of the proton and neutron. [See Fig.l.]. The magnetic moments of the proton and neutron are due to the structural form of quarks. It is known that the magnetic moment of a particle is represented by a number. This characterises the response of a particle to an external magnetic field. The magnetic
moments have been calculated and expressed in the following terms:
Ìð=Ã(1/3)+Ã(2/3) / 12,0944=2,79,
where Mp is the magnetic moment of a proton.
Ìï=Ã(2/3)+2Ã(1/3) / 9,2146=1,93,
where Mn is the magnetic moment of a neutron. The expression of the electron magnetic moment Me is:
The neutron magnetic moment M« and proton magnetic moment Mp are expressed in nuclear magnetons. The electron magnetic moment Me is expressed in Bohr magnetons. F(z) is the Gamma function. The numbers 12.0944 and 9.2146 are local fractal dimensions of the proton and neutron. These fractal dimensions can be simply calculated by the well-known method of fractal geometry. The values 1.00 ; 1.93 and 2.79 of magnetic moment coincide with experimental data within the accuracy of ‘vacuum additions’ to the magnetic moment. It is suggested by the author that the measurement of magnetic moment for the neutron is not accurate. This is because the theoretical value and practically observed value are not in close agreement. This discrepancy is a product of the neutron instability.
The experimental work of Taylor, Kendall and Friedman (1990 Nobel prize winners) has confirmed the composite model of nucleons; the form and position of these constituent parts were not described, they were assumed to be quarks. This work indicated that there were structural differences between the neutron and the proton.
The author then considered the photon. [See Fig.l.]. It is generally described as a wave packet. The suggested image of the photon as a volumetric figure of eight has been confirmed by the following experiment. Photons with known energy interacting with an atomic field can be converted to electron
and positron pairs and the paths of their movement can be observed. The author suggests that the photon, a combination of two modes of electromagnetic oscillation in contraphase, represents a standing wave. A conformation of the suggested photon structure may be visible in the Compton Effect.
The fractal forms of subatomic particles suggested by the author could form the basis of the ‘structural’ understanding of matter and they explain the essence of the uncertainty principle.
From the determination of the photon as suggested above, and the physical sense of the Planck constant ħ , the author has drawn the following conclusion. The mathematics of the uncertainty principle indicates a variance of light speed. If we take the correlation of uncertainty we can deduce a change of time Δ1=1/2ω. During this time interval, the characteristics of the propagation of light are changed. Light propagates at a velocity characterised by the wavelength λ. The time t=λ/ñ is the period. We can see that the change of time, Δt, is defined by the change of speed Δñ. The change of speed, Δñ, gives wavelength change Δλ, as the photon frequency, ω, will not change. From this the change of light speed can be simply calculated. The author calculated an increase of light speed from c to ñ(1+1/8π). Where c = 299792458 m/s and π=3,14.... This result tells us that space is not homogeneous but has at least two different states. The first state is ordered (polarised vacuum) and the second is disordered (non-polarised vacuum). Space is a structure of massless collapsible photons. The microstructure of space (i.e. photon) is suggested to be the structure of two oscillators, which represent standing waves. Eachoscillato has two equal degrees of freedom that are weakly linked. The order or disorder of space can be formed by differing compositions of massless collapsible photons (see Fig.2). Also, it has been indicated that a phase-shift of the ordered structure is ħ/2. This phase-shift of the ordered state is due to the opposite currents of the each half of the photon.
Space would be multiply connected, as there would exist an ordered and disordered state of structure. However the ordered state will not exist indefinitely in the midst of the disordered state. Therefore, to prolong the existence of the ordered state it has been suggested that a vortex movement should form, and effectively isolate order from disorder. As the vortex moves in a medium of no ‘viscosity’ the order would exist indefinitely.
The author suggests that these vortices take the form of tubes and threads. The vortex threads and tubes would make connections throughout space. One of the possible images of a vortex thread (see Fig.2) is a row of concentric circumferences, which are perpendicular to the axis of the thread. On the boundary of the two different states, the microstructures of space i.e. the above mentioned oscillators, tend to change state from ordered to disordered. The energy of this change of state is emitted as electromagnetic radiation and distributed throughout the microstructure of space. The frequency of this radiation is not constant and depends upon the sizes of ordered areas. The temperature of this radiation is 2.7 K (component of background radiation). This radiation forms a part of the Universal spectrum. Also, it is possible that the density of space in certain areas is of a very small value, and that light experiences ‘damping’ in this region. Such a region - a black hole - was found in the centre of our galaxy. The author considers the black hole in the next paragraph.
Some experiments to determine the variable structure of space have been made. Pendulums constructed from different materials have been suspended by a fine line. The first sample was a small permanent magnet. The second was a sample of ultra high temperature superconductor of approximately the same mass. And the third pendulum was a sample of a semiconductor. A general ‘search’ of many locations has been made by enforced oscillation of the pendulums. In certain locations that were studied, the amplitude of the oscillations would vary; this variation was dependent upon the material of the pendulum. The amplitude of the magnetic pendulum has been observed to increase in certain locations; however, the super conducting pendulum experienced damping in the same location. The semiconducting pendulum in the locations of the tubes and threads was ejected as well
as the magnetic one. The cause of this effect is suggested to be the Magnus force. Besides this, these experiments detect that the ordered structures of space have similar properties to super fluid He II, and hard (type II) superconductors. Due to this properties, it is obvious that the tubes and threads have to be free from cosmic dust and small pieces of meteorites. The author has offered
to use the tubes for transport in galaxies. The propulsion model has a new principle: the interaction between the super conducting body of a spaceship and an electron flow, which is emitted by the spaceship itself. It is suggested that this method would present the possibility of velocities greater than speed of light in suitable location (i.e. tubes).
Therefore the uncertainty principle is no longer relevant
to the physical understanding of the ‘real’ properties of nature. Current physical models (quantum mechanics) cannot describe many of the relationships observed in nature, as the basic foundation for quantum mechanics cannot be described. Quantum mechanics cannot even really answer simple questions of requirement for biology, geology, chemistry and other sciences by physical proof.
Fractal physics explains a great many phenomena and processes. For example, Fig.3 is a fractal hemispherical structure called ‘brain sand’ (photograph courtesy of Dr. S. Holubew). This biological form is one of the many confirmations of the fractal structure of nature. This also confirms that ‘life’ chooses these same stable shapes that closely match that of the form of the electron and the proton. It has been suggested that not only spherical but also hemispherical forms are the most stable in nature. An example of the fractal structure of particles was published in ‘New Scientist’ (No_1901/ 27.11.93/p.37).
The author suggests that this work establishes the basic principles of a ‘new’ fractal physics. This new physical model bases itself on understanding and the reality of the structure of nature. All matter is observed to have fractal form. Therefore this ‘new’ physics takes the name: ‘Fractal physics’.
Nature has a united and simple foundation. It is enough to mention the small number of subatomic particles and the suggested structure of space. These simplest electrical models determine the great variety of natural phenomena. Here we see the importance of a limited number of laws, which determine interactions between bodies of matter. Fractal physics gives us the possibility of discovering the deep unity of the material world
and determining the united interaction, which governs phenomena J and processes in electromagnetic nature. Different effects are essentially the product of the geometry and structure of fundamental electromagnetic space.
So, not only the propagation of information via the structure of space, but also the interactions in the solar system, have to be electromagnetic. The interactions of the solar system are determined only by electrical charges. It is the property of elementary particles to bear a charge, therefore every planet and the sun has to have the same property - to be electrically charged. Proceeding from the structural representation of matter we can reach the conclusion, that the sun and the planets must be considered not just inert masses of bodies, but as the matter of fundamental particles.
Indeed, the mean surface density of the negative electrical charge of the Earth is ơ = -1.15 nC/m2. The charge of the Earth is Q = -5.7-105 C. The electrical field at the surface of the Earth is E = 130 V/m. These experimental data help to calculate the electrical charges of the planets and the sun. It is known that the temperature of a planet depends upon the radius of planet orbit ®. This can be expressed by formula T = 277/√ Â, where Â is expressed in astronomical units; T is expressed in Kelvin. (Note, temperature is electrical potential and expressed in volts by the known formula φ = T /11600 ). From this point of view the surface density of the negative electrical charges of the planets can be calculated from the ratio between the temperatures of the planets and that of the Earth. Then, from these surface densities and the known planet sizes it is easy to calculate the negative electrical charges of every planet.
The mean temperature of the sun is T = 1.3*10 K. The sun’s positive electrical charge can be calculated by the same method: Q = + 3,Ç*1014 C. The positive mathematical sign of
the sun’s electrical charge is determined by ions of plasma, for the electron flows of the sun’s plasma turns the electromagnetic radiation.
So, the solar system consists of electrically charged spherical bodies; the sun has a positive charge greater then Jupiter’s negative charge by a power of 10 . The spherical planets are arranged around the sun at distances much greater than their sizes. Therefore the solar system can be considered as the system of point charges. The characteristics of the solar system and the moon collected in Table 1.
The interaction between the moving charged planets and the Sun is determined by the Lorenz force and may be represented by ( for SI units ):
The first term of the formula is a force acting on a point charge in electrical field E; the second term is a force acting on a point charge in magnetic field B. (Note that previously an electrical field has been considered as just the method of description of the interaction of charges at a distance.) This interaction is expressed by Coulomb’s Law.
In our calculation the sun’s and the planets’ surface magnetic fields were not taken into account, because their influence is too weak.
So, Coulomb’s Law and the law of energy conservation gave us the possibility of calculating the parameters of the solar system. For the definition of the parameters of the solar system, it was assumed, that the gyro-magnetic ratio of point charge is
q/ m = 1 / 4π ( for SI units).
The gyro-magnetic ratio for point charge defines a change of mass in comparison a change of charge. Here, in the general
case, we used a normalising coefficient:
Also, the author is positive that the determination of the gyro-magnetic ratio for point charge is one of the confirmations of the structural representation of matter.
The established law of the fundamental interaction between the bodies of space led to another conclusion. The third Keplerian law and the Gaussian law for the flux of electrical field actually are the same law of nature, just expressed in different forms. The author unified these two laws into one formula (for CGS units):
The right part of the equation characterises the Gaussian law in a plane, as every planet of the solar system rotates approximately in one plane. Besides that, it is known that the Coulomb’s Law and the Gaussian Law are not independent and are just the different expressions of one natural law.
The parameters of the moving planets may be determined very accurately by the sun’s charge, which is estimated from the mean temperature of the sun. The author made a connection between the electrical field of any planet and the charge of the sun. The author is positive that the electrical field of a planet is induced by the sun’s field. As the attraction of a planet on a body is defined by the planet’s charge, we see that the free fall acceleration is defined by the value of the electrical field at this planet; and the escape velocities also depend upon the planet size.
The axial rotation of a planet may depend upon the distribution of the planet charge in the body of this planet. For example, the moon has a different distribution of its charge on the visible and dark sides. This is the real cause of the moon’s synchronism of its movement by only one side around the Earth. The different
distribution of the moon’s charge has a correlation with the different structures of each side of the moon. The charge of the moon has been calculated from the geometric mean of the electric fields of the sun and Earth.
The individual magnetic field of every planet has been calculated in accordance with the Biot-Savart Law for moving charges. The magnetic field of a planet is determined by the surface density of charge, the velocity of axial rotation and the planet size. Jupiter has the greatest magnetic field, Jupiter’s magnetic field is ten times greater than the magnetic field of the Earth. (The Earth’s magnetic field is 0.53 Gauss.) The internal magnetic field of the sun is a large value, which is estimated to be about 11 Tesla. The surface mean magnetic field of the sun has a value about 1 Gauss. This question will be considered below. The characteristics of Pluto and the moon are nearly equal.
The magnetic field of a planet has an effect upon free fall acceleration, and it has to be taken into account. For instance, the free fall acceleration of the Earth is different at the magnetic equator and at the magnetic pole. The full force, acting upon a point charge, is defined as the force of attraction - Coulomb’s Law, as well as the force of repulsion, which exists due to the action of the magnetic field of a planet. The explanation of this effect is as follows. As a point charge and a planet together have the rotation (around the axis of the planet) at a time of interaction, we can draw on an analogy with two electrical currents of opposite directions. Such currents always repulse. The opposite charge of a charge point (for example, the charge of a satellite) is due to the instant action of the electrostatic induction of the planet field.
The nature of forces of the universe was discovered due to the established law of a force, which determines the movement of point charges in space. Here, it is essential to take into account
the law of energy conservation.
So, it is known that the solar system rotates around the centre of our galaxy at the velocity of 250 km/sec. (Note, the old physics explains it as the speed of the ‘expansion’ of the universe at a rate of 55 km/sec per 1 MParsec. From this point the old physics came to the following unscientific conclusion: as the universe is ‘finite’, gravitation is due to the ‘bend’ of space. The radiation of space at 2.7 K was submitted to be ‘relic’ radiation of the ‘Beginning’ at the moment of ‘Big Bang’. From such ideology the ‘bend of space’ leads to the idea of the speed limit of any interaction and’ relative time’. The unscientific physics tries to prove that space is just a mathematical field without a real physical structure. The bankruptcy of the old physics is due to the symbiosis of unscientific ideas and the insolvent stochastic representation of matter. Therefore the old physics holds for the false law of the attraction of the inert masses. This false law was the last support of the unscientific representation of matter. However, this law is a very clever fake for the experimental data of the Earth, but no more. The fake is not valid for the other planets.)
The sun rotates around an axis coming through the centre of the galaxy. The period of the rotation is approximately 250 million years. The distance from the sun to the galactic centre is estimated to be about 10 kParsec. The galactic centre is located in the direction of Sagittarius. The centre presents a large elliptical kernel, which is separated by a black hole. The black hole weakens light by at least in 10000 times. The elliptical form of the kernel is evidence of its fast rotation. The rotation of the galactic centre was confirmed by the known direct astronomical measurements. The red giant stars with effective temperatures 3500 -5000K belong to the structure of the galactic kernel. The maximum intensity of the radiation of these stars is in the red and infrared
parts of the spectrum. The spectro-photometric methods detected an increase of the infrared radiation of the Milky Way at the sun’s moving towards the galactic centre, and a decrease of the temperature of the Milky Way in the centre in comparison with the other directions. The radio-astronomical observations at wavelength 2 Ism recovered the structure of the galactic kernel. There is a spiral hydrogenous ‘arm’ directly connected to the kernel. Another hydrogen ‘arm’ exists from the other side of the kernel. The gas and electron ejections of the kernel take place in two opposite directions along the lines of the kernel’s magnetic field. The analysis of the kernel structure discovered the essence of this phenomenon - the ordered movements of the dense scattering negatively charged clouds of the gas and the fast electrons.
So, the galactic kernel represents a magneto-dynamic plasma configuration with rotation and a super-strong magnetic field. This field is the cause of the informational lack about the centre of our galaxy. Besides this, the decrease of the temperature of the Milky Way is the consequence of the presence of the black hole in the galactic centre.
From the properties of the galactic centre and the established law of fundamental interaction we can calculate the magnetic field at the sun’s orbit and the field of the black hole. The sun is a charge point rotating around the galactic centre with the radius r<> in a plane, which is perpendicular to the galactic magnetic field B. In this case, the Lorenz force is a centripetal force. Therefore, the magnetic field at the orbit of the sun can be determined by the following equation:
Borbit= mV / (4πεοqrο)= 4π • 250000 / [ 4π (1/ 36π • 109) 10 • 3,086·1016·103 ]= 0,9 • 10-4 Tesla = 0.9 Gauss
The experimental measurement shows this weak magnetic field exists on the sun’s surface everywhere.
From the definition of the circulation of the magnetic field of the sun, we can estimate that there is some ordered movement
of currents Lent™ at a rate of 1.4*10 A. The magnetic field in the black hole may be calculated, if we just imagine that the galactic centre represents a solenoid. Bcentre = 1.7 * 10 Tesla. The quasi-periodic changes of the kernel’s activity correlates with the rotation of an object, which has a period of about a few years. It causes the changes in the sun’s activity. The sun’s movement around the galactic centre is similar to an interaction in a cyclic accelerator of charged particles. The stability of such interaction exists due to the synchronising between the magnetic field in the kernel and the magnetic field on the orbit of the sun.
Our stellar system has galaxy-satellites. They are known as the Big and Small Magellanic Clouds. As they are just satellites, they do not have their own kernels. The positive charges of these systems interact with the negative charge of the kernel of our galaxy. Our galaxy together with the neighbouring galaxies rotates around a central thickening - the cluster of galaxies in the constellation of Virgo. From the parameters of this movement, it is simple to calculate the positive charge of the super-cluster of galaxies. Note, our super-cluster of galaxies has as neighbours: a super-cluster of galaxies in the constellation of Leo and a super-cluster in the constellation of Hercules. Our galaxy is placed in the midst of other galaxies, but galaxies are just small ‘atoms’ in the infinite world.
So, the interaction of charged bodies exists due to the instant action of electromagnetic force through the structure of space. This is the exact wording of the established Law of Gravity. This Law is also valid for the small distances between charges under the condition of the spherical form of bodies and the even distribution of charges.
So, the effects of the strong and weak interactions relate to the united fundamental interaction, because they take place under circumstances of different forms of matter.
Only the geometry and structure of space, as mention above, lead to quite different effects. As nature basically is a very complicated composition of charged particles, the fundamental interaction should be just one - the electromagnetic interaction. However, it appears in different forms: gravitation, the weak and strong interaction, the evident electromagnetic interaction. This is the essence of the nature of the force, which determines the universe.
Modern physics was established at the beginning of the twentieth century. This physics is based upon the random representation of nature and has difficulty making ‘sense’ of the structure of the Universe. Therefore, modern physics does not really explain the structural genesis of matter, but provides us with the capability of stochastic prediction only. There existed a need to apply a ‘new’ physical model for the further understanding of the macroworld and microworld, revealing the internal connections of phenomena and the more detailed information of nature.
The subject of fractal physics is the study of properties, structures and conversions of matter. It indicates that matter, and the formation of its structure, is independent of the observer. The first application of fractal physics was to study the structure of elementary particles - the electron, proton, neutron and photon. These forms have been studied first as they are the keys to the
structure of nature. In 1987, the author had completed the determination of the fractal structures of the electron, proton, neutron and photon. Proceeding from this, he also discovered relationships between the fundamental parameters of phase transitions: temperature and entropy, versus the quantity and state of subatomic particles and the photon, i.e., the position of the elements in Mendeleyev’s periodic table. It gave a way to determine the phenomenon of energy conversion, which indicated an increase of output energy from 2.19 to 4.2 times that of the input energy, at the change of phase. This calculation applies to only one uncoupled valence electron of compound. This ratio increases incrementally with ascending numbers of valence electrons. Increasing output energy depends upon the internal energy of matter, and the type of particles carrying this energy (fermions or bosons).
Fractal physics proves that nature has a unity and united fundamental electromagnetic interaction. This electromagnetic interaction determines the ‘real’ law of gravity; the interaction of bodies is due to electromagnetic forces through the structure of space.
The results of the above research have been applied to new technology with success and the field is developing rapidly.
Fractal physics has been applied to electrical conduction and it revealed the nature of this phenomenon. Photons are, firstly, the initiators of the excitement of atomic electrons. Secondly, photons are the energy carriers of excited atomic electrons. Electrons are determined not to move but to stay rigidly bonded to their atoms. This model of conduction has been applied to superconductivity, and as a result it was possible to synthesise a very high temperature superconducting compound with a critical temperature of grater then 373 K.
Fig.4 is the energetic image of the phenomenon of superconductivity in ceramic compounds. A plane representing a two-dimensional crystal lattice forms a corpuscular system consisting of 3 or 4 elements. The central component contains six outer electrons and the higher and lower energy elements have three outer electrons each. Electrons of elements are coupled in pairs with the poles of their fractal forms together. Between the poles there is an attraction potential due to the differences in binding energy. At a given instant, one of the electrons of the first element issues a quantum of electromagnetic field (photon).
Interaction of such a type is inherent to electrically charged particles. Photons are the energy carriers and do not have charge; however, the photon structure has two oppositely charged parts. The rate at which the particles interact with each other is relative to the rate of energy transfer through the system; classically current. The action passes from particle to particle via the nucleus of the central element to the outer electrons of the third (or fourth) element. Thus the exchange of energy between the electrons of the higher and lower energy elements occurs without dissipation. From such an interaction the critical current of high temperature ceramic superconductors is determined by the atomic mass content of the lower energy component.
The critical temperature of transition to the superconducting state is determined by the presence of ionic-molecules in the crystal structure; the ions appear in force of spatial restrictions and atomic interactions. Heat changes distances between the ions; and the rate of perfect energy exchange dimishes between the outer electrons, as the attraction potential of the electrons becomes chaotic. The critical temperature of superconducting transition can be expressed by the following equation:
Where e = 2.718... ; Z = atomic number expressing proton nuclear charge; I = quantum number of change of state (+1, 0,-1); change of state is due to absorption or emission of a quantum of energy by the atom; n = the period number in the periodic table of elements; σ = number of atoms in the molecule; J = quantum number ( +1; 0; -1) characterising the change of electron energy level; N = number of outer electrons of atoms, equal to the number of the group in the periodic table.
Any phase change has the change of entropy ΔS that
characterises the leap of heat capacity. The entropy change can be expressed as follows:
Where π = 3.141... , A = atomic mass (the number of nucleons), Z = atomic number ( the number of electrons) , I = quantum number ( +1, 0 , -1 ) characterising an emitted or absorbed photon. Here Cv = (A + Z+ I ) ≤ 25 is the thermal capacity of matter.
A thermo-electric generator was constructed; this indicated an increase in output energy of 2.2 : 1. This is in agreement with the theoretical emission of radiation at the change of phase of matter. Indeed from the determined correlation for the change of entropy of matter we see a connection between the output energy release of phase change ( W ) and spent energy ( P):
where k is the coefficient of energy conversion for one outer uncoupled electron of compound. The coefficient has a range from 2.19 to 4.2 ; its mean value is n. The coefficient depends upon the type of interacting particles and rate of energy exchange.
During studies at certain locations, we find indications that space is multiply connected. This connection is in agreement with the theoretical presence of tubes and threads. The structure of space could be considered to be different within and surrounding these particular locations. Space can be ordered or disordered in structure.
The theory states that speed of light is not constant, but has a tendency to increase in the ordered vortex zones to c(l + 1/8π). It has been proved that the uncertainty principle is not acausal, but is the differential of the speed of light. Consequently the old physics has lost its foundation.
field of ‘moving electrons’ and the failure to observe an increase of the electric field of an accelerating electron. This gives a new presentation of matter and specifically a ‘new’ model for the atom and its spectrum. From an spectral analises of atoms the author has discovered a connection between the potential energy of an atom ( Watom) and the associated atomic number (Z) in the periodic table, as fallows:
where Watom is expressed in electronvolts. This equation expresses the connection between energy and the quantity of matter.
From the fractal representation of the atomic structure a connection can be made between the potential nuclear energy (Wnucleus) and the number of protons (Z) and neutrons (N). This may be expressed as follows:
where Wnucleus is expressed in MeV; D is the main fractal dimension of a nucleus. D = 1 for the nucleus of Helium 2He4 . From the second period of the periodic table the main fractal dimension of the nucleus is determined as follows:
D = InN / (2In n),
where n is the period in the periodic table. For the upper rows of the long periods, 4, 5 and 6, the value n has to be taken as the geometric mean of the period number n and the number of the previous period n-1, i.e. √n(n-l). Two components in the brackets of this expression for the nuclear energy, represent the respective intensity of the protons and neutrons. The total value of the nuclear energy is equal to the work needed to fission the nucleus into the constituent protons and neutrons. The experimental data for the nuclear binding energy accurately confirm the connection for every element in the periodic table. Hereby the unscientific correlation between energy and inert mass may be removed.
Consequently, we see the difference of propagations for light and for information. In practical terms, this means that life on Earth depends not only upon the sun, but also on information coming from the centre of the galaxy and from everywhere in the universe.
It seems to the author that the law of conservation and the law of absolute space and time provide the basis for the understanding of nature. They are correct in both in the macroworld and the microworld, and therefore, they suggest unification.
Thus, fractal physics has its origins in the teachings of Democrates, Aristarchus, Copernicus, Gallileo, Kepler, Coulomb, Dalton, Mendeleyev, Planck and Vernadsky. They declared the basis of ‘real’ knowledge of nature.
Dr. Basil D. Shabetnik.