On December 14-
39th exhibition “Surprising in stone” took
place in Moscow Timiryazev Biological Museum (Malaya Gruzinskaya
Street, 15). This Exhibition was organized by Moscow Friends of
participants is the SchoolChildren Faculty MGGRU, which has exhibited
specimens collected during geological trip of students with
schoolchildren to Russian deposits (especially good are calcite
specimens from Belorechenskoye deposit, North Caucasus).
the first time, the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy
of Science participated in this exhibition, demonstrating a selection of
33 specimens from Victor I. Stepanov's collection - the best of
and livingstonite specimens from Khaidarkan (Kirghizia), unique
spherical aggregates of quartz from the Tebenchi River (Siberia),
fragment of transparent natrolite crystal from Khibiny (Kola Peninsula)
Agate and flint
always were favor specimens of the exhibition. Flints of Moscow area
distinguished not only by beauty, but also by a very interesting
genesis, as Victor A. Slyotov has noted. New finds from Moscow and
Vladimir regions were shown Mr. Lukhovitsy and Michael Bahhin.
is necessary to mark agates and rhodonite from Kamchatka Peninsula
(Russia) and cavancite
from India. The exposition of luminescent minerals was continued from
the previous exhibition (about 20 specimens). Outstanding Collector
Victor V. Ponomarenko made small but the expressive exposition of
calcites from Dalnegorsk (Primorskii Krai, Russia).
Mineralogical Scientific Meetings
the Fersman Mineralogical Museum
1) V.I. Kazansky (IGEM) has recounted his reminds about an unknown
period in study of Tyuya Muyun (1949-1954);
2) L.A. Pautov et al. have reported on new data on mineralogy of V-U
deposits of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, distinguished by a number of
1) Ravil V. Galiulin has made a presentation «On twinning in calcite»;
2) Ernest M. Spiridonov has reported about mineralogy of the
well-known Sarany deposit (with amazing program of slide show).
November 16, 1875. Birthday of Victor Ivanovich Vorobiev (dead 1906),
mineralogist, who played an important role in destiny of the Fersman
Mineralogical Museum in the beginning of 20th century.
Vorobevite - Gem variety of pink beryl was named in his honor,
another name of this mineral is morganite.
November 19, 1711. Birthday of Michael Vasilievich Lomonosov, scientist
of encyclopedic knowledge. Mineral lomonosovite was named in his honor
November 19, 1829 in the Startseva Yama (Murzinka, Alabashka pegmatite
field, Urals), a unique crystal of beryl 27.2 cm long has been found, now it is
in collection Mining Museum of St.-Petersburg Mining Institute
November 20, 1856.
Peter Andreevich Zemyatchensky (dead 1942), mineralogist, the Curator of
the Mineralogical Museum of St.-Petersburg University in the 1880s. See
a note by V.I.Vernadsky about him (in
Russian) on site
November 23, 1966 is the birthday of Mineral Club of Leningrad
(now St-Petersburg). The first chairman of this Club was N.V. Sukhova.
Many outstanding Mineralogist cooperate with this Club, for example
Dmitry P. Grigoriev (Professor of Leningrad University) made talks to
Club members in Mining Museum of the St. Petersburg Mining Academy,
Vladimir D. Kolomensky was the supervisor of studies
December 6, 1870. Birthday of Jacob V. Samoilov (dead 1925), talented
mineralogist, pupil of Vladimir I. Vernadsky.
December 7, 1938. Birthday of Alexander V. Gromov, mineralogist,
Professor of the Chair of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of MGGRU, the
researcher of Kazakhstan pegmatite bodies.
December 9, 1796. Birthday of Nikolay Fedorovich Isakovich (Nile,
Archbishop of Yaroslavl and Rostov), who has collected the most valuable
collection of Siberian minerals. See about him and his collection in G.F.
Anastasenko's book and in her articles in Mineralogical Almanac
v. 2, 1999, and World of Stones magazine, #12, 1997.
December 11, 1912 . Birthday of Kinichi Sakurai (dead 1993), Japanese
amateur collector, his big, scientifically documented mineralogical
collection has 670 species from 1380 sites of Japan (see Miner. Record,
1994, v.25, #1, p.2).
At the bookshelf
Minerals of the Carpathians,
Edited by S. Szakall. Published by Granit, 2002, Prague, 480 p.
minerals in the region, covering six countries (Czechia, Slovakia,
Poland, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine), where more than 1000 mineral species
were found for three hundred years of studies (approximately as much as
known on the Urals or in California) were considered, out of them more
than 50 are new species. These are classical finds of gold crystals,
specimens of noble opal and magnificent collection of specimens of
common and rare minerals (antimonite, aragonite, barite, malachite and
many others), and the world largest crystals of hessite, chabasite,
mellilite, etc. These finds were included in directories and represented
in the largest museums of the world, but unfortunately, frequently there
are problems with their binding since boundaries between states
repeatedly changed on this area. The new book helps to remove many of
these problems as it contains reference maps by countries, index of
sites which lists both new and old names, as well as their variants (for
example, name in Slovak, Hungarian and German languages). Attached are
drawings of crystals by mineral classes, important data on museums of
the region are also given. It is not surprising that the book containing
such volume of information became the best seller in the European market
of literature on mineralogy
World: Inclusions in Quartz.
Jaroslav Hyrsl and Gerhard Niedermayer, Bode Verlag, 2003 (in English
minerals are almost absent in Nature. They always have faults or defects
in composition, structure of their crystal lattice, and in form (habitus)
Inclusions (prisoners) of one minerals in other are
undoubtedly one of forms of these defects, but at the same time they
bear in itself a huge a information, which is used by man in many
spheres of life from actual use of natural resources (effective
prospecting, exploration, and development of mineral deposits) to high
technologies in engineering and science, construction and in private
99.99 % of inclusions
in minerals are indiscernible by naked eye without corresponding special
exploratory equipment, but in transparent minerals there are, though
very rarely, macroinclusions, which can be diagnosed visually (but could
not be touched!).
Quartz is surprisingly
fertile mineral (as a “capturer”, “preservative”) by virtue of
transparency, high hardness, formations of large and even huge
individuals with well developed own cutting, and also because of the
omnipresence, high abundance in various types of deposits and
manifestations of mineral resources.
It should be noted
that special literature is abundant on studies of quartz inclusions and
application of results in practice (in particular - for production of
artificial materials, in prospecting and exploration of new mineral
deposits, etc.). All developed countries of the world professionally
studied inclusions. But basically at the microlevel! Large inclusions
are very rare (though almost one-kilogram topaz crystals in quartz in
pegmatites of Volhynia and about one meter cavity with gas-liquid
inclusions in large quartz crystals in deposits of Kazakhstan and Brazil
were registered). In studies, including mineralogical, macroinclusions
in most cases were simply registered as a fact, either funny thing or
defect in quartz most often preventing fulfillment of the primary goal
of nature user or, which is more lamentable, of researcher. At the best,
if it was possible, specimens of quartz with inclusions got in museums
or in private collections and this has allowed to save for us and
descendants this unique material.
Some material was
certainly used in different sorts of hand-made articles. Quartz crystals
with inclusions were described in early Middle Ages. In the 13th
century, Mogamed Ben Manssur has written the “Book about Gems” for
Sultan Nassara Bedirkhan from the abbas tribe, in which he, describing
“bellor” – rock crystal – certifies the Sultan that wood, grass, and
moss are frequent in bellor. He personally had seen two bellors, from
which “one comprised a green branch and the other - a hyacinth flower”.
In days of Catherine the Great, hand-made articles of quartz with
inclusions were an attribute of high erudition of the holder and were
fabulously expensive. A.Vambern, Hungarian specialist in Turkic
philology of the 19th century, states that in his presence a
Turkmen sheikh had cured a person bitten by a poisonous snake, stroking
a place of bite with quartz crystal with inclusions of golden needles of
articles of quartz with inclusions become more and more popular, though
they are expensive. And not only because of high decorative effect and
internal mystery, but also because of increase of internal culture of
man. Pliny – the Roman writer and naturalist – has written two millenia
ago: “Each gem, as a drop of water, reflects all greatness of nature and
any one gem is enough to feel the top of its perfection”.
Magnificent and yet
unique publication of Jaroslav Hirele and Gerhard Nidermeier “Great
Secrets of the World: Inclusions in Quartz» perfectly illustrates
For the first time,
authors together with colleagues – photographers Rhainer Bode, Heinz
Ditter Muller et al. have managed to show in photos fantastic beauty and
the vast variety of mineral inclusions in quartz. They used own
collections of quartz with inclusions and more than 50 other private
mineralogical collections of amateurs and connoisseurs of stone from
Czechia, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, Italy, Luxembourg,
Norway, Morocco, Argentina, Brazil, the USA and other countries. They
also used worthy and disposable material of leading mineralogical
museums and galleries of Europe and the USA: Viennese Museum, Norwegian
Museum, Dresden Museum of Mineralogy and Geology, Los Angeles Natural
History Museum, etc.
High aesthetics of
specimens and excellent performance of photographs are characteristic of
more than 300 images of 68 different mineral species from common rutile
in quartz (36 photos), chlorite (22 photos), tourmaline (13 photos),
hematite (18 photos) and goethite (17 photos) to rarely present and
visible in quartz apatite, bournonite,
cyanite, beryl, uvite and other minerals. Dioptase in quartz and
discovered in the middle 90s of the 19th century in Transvaal
papagoite and ioite – clayey minerals of magnificent blue color –
certainly please the eye and heart. Gas-liquid inclusions; inclusions of
bitumens, asphalts, petroleum, other organic compounds basically from
China; pseudomorphs and paramprphs of quartz in quartz after antimonite
(Kadamzhai); ilmenite after brookite; muscovite after anhydrite, etc.;
dendrites of Mn and Fe oxides and diverse basically chlorite, goethite,
and sericite phantoms are very well illustrated, though little numerous.
accompanied by brief but informative and understandable even for amateur
comments describing properties of material, deposit, its history and
history about it. In addition, the book-atlas gives a similar
description of more 86 mineral species and about 30 unrecognized forms
met by researchers as inclusions in quartz from various deposits and
manifestations of the world - from diamond to ice. Artificial inclusions
in quartz are also briefly characterized.
In the book,
minerals-inclusions are conveniently classified under the standard
classification of minerals: native elements, sulphides, halogenides,
oxides, borates, sulfates, tungstates, carbonates, phosphates and
silicates and are easy to be found, therefore, the book can serve as a
directory, a qualifier of minerals, a fine gift and as a simply
beautiful and easily readable publication.
It is a regret that in
Russia and Former Soviet Union countries there is no such a book, though
the territory is extremely rich in mineralogy,
including minerals-inclusions in quartz (see for example photos at the
bottom of this page). Hopefully the next edition of this book will
include material from Russia and Former Soviet Union countries. I recommend this book
to all collectors and museum curators and mineralogist and all amateurs